The execution of Captian Wirz

The old prison

On November 10, 1865, inside the courtyard at the old federal prison that once stood on the corners of 1st and A streets Northeast, (The present-day site of the US Supreme Court) the US Army hung  Heinrich Hartmann Wirz (AKA Henry Wirz) to death.
The old prison
 in Z├╝rich, Switzerland, was a Confederate officer in command  of Camp Sumter, the Confederate prisoner of war camp near Andersonville, Georgia. (Union prisoners named the camp Andersonville.)  Here, union prisoners were jailed in a vast, rectangular, open-air stockade originally encompassing sixteen and a half acres, which had been intended as only a temporary prison pending exchanges of prisoners with the North.  
The prison suffered an extreme lack of food, tools and medical supplies, severe overcrowding, poor sanitary conditions and a lack of potable water. At its peak in August 1864, the camp held approximately 32,000 Union prisoners, making it the fifth largest city in the Confederacy. The monthly mortality rate from disease and malnutrition reached 3,000.
Wirz was arrested in May 1865, by a contingent of federal cavalry and taken by rail to Washington, D.C., where the federal government intended to place him on trial for conspiring to impair the lives of Union prisoners of war.
In July 1865, the trial convened in the Capitol building and lasted for two months, dominating the front pages of newspapers across the United States. The court heard the testimony of former inmates, ex-Confederate officers and even nearby residents of Andersonville. Finally, in early November, the commission announced that it had found Wirz guilty of conspiracy as charged, along with 11 of 13 counts of murder. He was sentenced to death.
Reading the crimes
HenryWirz rejected an offer of a pardon the night before his execution becaause the offer was conditioned on his agreement to testify that former Confederate President Jefferson Davis was responsible for the deaths at Andersonville. Wirz said that the statement would be a lie and that he would not base his freedom on a lie.
Hood is placed on his head
On November 10, 1865 Wirz, guarded by four companies of soldiers, was led to the gallows before some 250 spectators who had government issued tickets who chanted "remember Andersonville" as Wirz ascended the stairway of the gallows. A hood was placed over Wirz's head and the rope around his neck. Wirz last words reportedly were that he was being hanged for following orders. The trap door was sprung open at 10:32 a.m. stretching the rope as it suddenly bore Wirz's weight. Wirz's neck was not broken by the fall and he writhed about as he slowly died of stangulation. Reports were that the crowd cheered as he choked.  He was later buried in the Mount Olivet Cemetery in Washington, D.C.

The floor is dropped

                                                               Wirz swings to death

Navy Defense guns off of Indian Head highway, Maryland

On parade on America's main street

The Klan in Northern Virginia

Wide shot of old Dc

Random old photos of DC

The Senate
House of Representatives

View from the Old Soldiers Home in NE DC

21st and F NW

HQ for General Alfred Pleasaton near 21st and F NW

Maryland Congressman Charles Linthicum

Maryland Senator Blair Lee (Same family as Robert E. Lee)

Fire at the Treasury Building

Greyhound to New York

F street NW before Christmas

The Petticoat Affair

Margaret O'Neill (Her maiden name is also recorded as O'Neale and O'Neil.) is better known as a footnote of history as Peggy Eaton, although She preferred to be called  Margaret  and  claimed until the day she died that only her enemies referred to her as Peggy.

Peggy, noted for her beauty, wit and vivacity, was born and raised in the District, the oldest of six O'Neale children, probably living at 19th and K Streets Northwest for most of her early life.  Her father was William O'Neale, an Irish immigrant and the owner of Franklin House, a popular high-end social center, tavern/ hotel for politicians. (It was actually more like a huge boardinghouse) located on 2007 I Street NW. (Others place the hotel at the northeast corner of Penn and 21st)

Away from home and family, the politicians who lived at the hotel (Lafayette was a guest there once) spoiled Peggy with attention. "I was always a pet," she later remarked.
 She was educated one of the best schools in the District, studied French, English, grammar, needlework and music and was a noted pianist. Andrew Jackson once wrote to his wife, Rachel, "every Sunday evening [Peggy] entertains her pious mother with sacred music to which we are invited."  She had such a talent for dance by the age of 12 she performed for First Lady Dolley Madison.

In 1816, when she was only 17, the blue eyed and dark haired O’Neale married John Bowie Timberlake, a 39-year-old purser in the United States Navy. Her parents gave them a house across from the hotel. 

By then, stories of Peggy’s romances were DC legend, most of it was pure rumors and gossip, which included tales of how one suitor-swallowed poison after she refused him, another was that she had been involved with the son of President Jefferson's treasury secretary; and that she had almost eloped with a young aide to General Winfield Scott.  In that story, Peggy was said to be claiming out of her bedroom window to run off with the young man when she kicked over a flowerpot during her climb, awakening her father, who dragged her back inside.

Most of these stories weren’t true but Peggy was a forward young girl and openly
flirtatiousness, who worked in the family tavern, was known to tell an off color joke and quick to offer her political opinions. The result was, by many who didn’t know her, that Peggy was a wanton woman.


 In 1818, they met and befriended John Henry Eaton, (1790-1856) the handsome, wealthy 28-year-old widower and newly elected senator from Tennessee who was a guest at the Franklin House. He had become a confidant of John Timberlake, so much so that upon learning that Timberlake was heavily in debt, Eaton tried to get the Senate to pass a petition to pay debts accrued while Timberlake was in the Navy, but was unsuccessful. Eaton also, foolishly, escorted Peggy around town when Timberlake was away at sea.

ton’s close friend, Andrew Jackson, had met Peggy in December 1823, when he arrived in Washington as the new junior senator from Tennessee and boarded at the Franklin House. Like most elected representatives, Jackson had not intended to relocate to the capital which was a muddy, scattered sleepy southern town still reeling from the British invasion of 1814.

The Franklin had been recommended to Jackson by John Henry Eaton, Tennessee's senior senator and the author of a biography on Jackson that highlighted Jackson’s
 heroism as the general who defeated the British army at New Orleans in 1815.

Andrew Jackson , 1844 

Jackson, the son of Irish immigrants, took a liking to William O'Neale and his "agreeable and worthy family." and was said to have a special fondness for Peggy, then
 23-years-old and married to John Bowie Timberlake, with who she bore three children (one of them dying in infancy).  Peggy was, Jackson said often, "the smartest little woman in America." and his wife Rachel Jackson was equally impressed when she travelled to Washington in 1824.

 Timberlake died in 1828 while at sea in the Mediterranean, in service on a four-year voyage aboard the USS Constitution. The cause of death was pulmonary disease.
Peggy married Senator Eaton shortly afterwards in a candle-lit ceremony held at the O'Neale residence on January 1, 1829. 

Margaret Bayard Smith

According to the social mores of the day, they probably should have waited longer and the rumors about them started immediately, the Maryland politician and later secretary of the treasury and state in Jackson's second cabinet, Louis McLane, sniped that the 39-year-old Eaton had "just married his mistress--and the mistress of 11-doz. others" and Margaret Bayard Smith, a Washington society maven whose husband was president of the local branch of the Bank of the United States, declared that Eaton’s reputation "totally destroyed" by the marriage.

Louis McLane

  The cruelest rumor was that  Timberlake had committed suicide because of despair at an alleged affair between his wife Peggy and Eaton and this rumor was probably started with Lieutenant Robert Beverly Randolph was a naval officer from Fredericksburg, Virginia, who had been dismissed in disgrace under direct orders from President Jackson.  

 In 1828, Randolph was appointed purser aboard the U.S.S. Constitution, assigned to take John B. Timberlake’s place.   An auditor's report and subsequent investigation found that Randolph's accounts did not balance and that he was in debt to the government, but that there was no evidence of intentional wrongdoing.  Regardless, and based on the investigation, President Jackson dismissed Randolph from the navy. Randolph argued that he had done nothing wrong and that it was Timberlake who actually embezzled the money and had funneled some of that money to John H. Eaton, then secretary of war.

     In 1833 Randolph, now a disgraced former naval officer was back in Fredericksburg where Andrew Jackson was visiting to lay the cornerstone at a monument to George Washington's mother.  Jackson would make the trip by boat. When the boat made a stopover in Alexandria, Randolph boarded and made his way into Jackson’s cabin where Jackson was seated, surrounded by several members of his party.  According to one version of what happened next, Randolph approached the aged Jackson with "timidity" and "humility." and   "thrust one hand violently into the President's face" or that Randolph “struck him (Jackson) in the face.” and that  “ Jackson immediately thrust the dastardly assailant from him" and stood up.

      As a group of men rushed in to restrain Randolph, the sixty-six-year-old Jackson grabbed his cane, demanded that everyone move away, and leave him free to wreak vengeance on his attacker. "Let no man stand between me and the villain" and later chastised the men who "interposed, closed the passage of the door, and held me, until I was oblige [d] to tell them if they did not open a passage I would open it with my cane."" In fact, when someone offered to kill Randolph immediately, the president rejected the offer: "I want no man to stand between me and my assailants, and none to take revenge on my account." Jackson later wrote Martin Van Buren that if he had been prepared for the assault he would have killed Randolph.

    Several years later, after Jackson had left office and Randolph was finally apprehended for the assault, Jackson also rejected the interference of the courts in what he regarded as an affair of honor. He asked President Van Buren to pardon Randolph.

Peggy Eaton

Eaton was a close friend of President Andrew Jackson, who knew and liked the couple, encouraged their marriage (The then President-elect told Eaton "If you love the woman, and she will have you, marry her at once and shut their mouths.. . . and restore Peggy's good name.”) and in 1829 appointed him Secretary of War, which elevated Peggy into the closed world of Cabinet social circle.  However, the rumors about her and Eaton followed  (mostly the rumor was that Peggy was promiscuousness and that she miscarried pregnancy by Eaton prior to their marriage) and the wives of the cabinet officials, led by Floride Calhoun, the wife of Vice President John C. Calhoun, led the other Cabinet wives to shut Peggy out.  It seems that Floride Calhoun accepted a social call from the Eaton’s after their wedding but she steadfastly refused to pay a return visit, which the tiny universe of Washington’s polite society interpreted as a calculated snub.

Floride Calhoun

Jackson was angered by the snubbing but tried, unsuccessfully, to coerce the women into accepting Peggy into their rarefied world.  According to Jackson biographer Robert V. Remini, at a grand ball on inauguration night, "the other ladies in the official family tried not to notice as Peggy Eaton swept into the room and startled everyone with her presence and beauty."

Jackson believed that rumors were the cause of her heart attack and death December 22, 1828, several weeks after his election, of his wife Rachel because her first marriage had not yet been legally ended at the time of her wedding to Jackson. Even Rachel's niece Emily Donelson, whom Jackson called on as his "First Lady", sided with the Calhoun faction and turned a chilly shoulder to Peggy, claiming that Mrs. Eaton's elevation to the cabinet had given his wife airs that made her "society too disagreeable to be endured."

 Jackson's advisors, worried about the political fallout caused by the Peggy rumors, tried to dissuade him from naming Eaton to his cabinet but Jackson reportedly said
"Do you suppose that I have been sent here by the people to consult the ladies of Washington as to the proper persons to compose my cabinet?”

Jackson appointed Eaton as his Secretary of War, hoping to limit the rumors, but the scandal intensified mostly becuase Jackson many political opponents, especially those around Calhoun, were feeding the controversy.

"Eaton Malaria." (A term Secretary of State Martin Van Buren coined) had taken grip of the Jackson administration, putting off Jackson’s plan to replace corrupt bureaucrats in the government.  Jackson decided to delay his formal post-inaugural cabinet dinner because tensions between Peggy Eaton and the rest of the political wives was so prevalent.  


 On September 10, 1829, Jackson decided to kill the issue once and for all. With Vice President Calhoun at home in South Carolina and John Eaton not invited, Jackson
summoned his cabinet, plus Reverends John N. Campbell and Ezra Stiles Ely who had recently criticized Margaret's morals, to a meeting at the White House.  Ill with
dropsy, chest pains, and recurring headaches, the 62-year-old Jackson proceeded to
make a cases for Peggy Eaton, including affidavits from people who had known her and
absolved her of misconduct. When someone in the room argued the case, Jackson bellowed that Peggy (The twice-married mother of two) was “ chaste as a virgin!"

Assuming the issue was resolved; Jackson held his overdue cabinet dinner in November 1829. However, as Van Buren recalled the affair had "no very marked exhibitions of bad feeling in any quarter" but the entire evening was tense and awkward and the guests “rushed through their meals in order to avoid discussion of or with the Eaton’s, who had found places of honor near Jackson.”   The next state party, hosted by Van Buren was attended to by every member of the cabinet but not their wives who found various reasons not to show.

For two years, the press and pundits savaged the administration over Jackson's support for the Eaton’s. The rumors about the couple spread grew worse.  One declared as a fact that Eaton had fathered a child with a "colored female servant." The president had even sent his nephew and private secretary, Andrew Jackson Donelson, and his wife, Emily, back to Tennessee when they refused to associate with the Eaton’s. Andrew Donelson expressed his sadness in parting from his uncle, "to whom I have stood from my infancy in the relation of son to father."

In the spring of 1831, Jackson almost completely reorganized his cabinet, an event referred to as the Petticoat affair. Postmaster William T. Barry would be the lone member to stay.  The worst effect of the incident fell on the political fortunes of the vice-president, John C. Calhoun because Jackson transferred his favor to the widower Martin Van Buren, the Secretary of State and the only unmarried member of the Cabinet. Van Buren had taken the Eaton’s' side in the quarrel and his elevation to the vice-presidency and presidency through Jackson's favor as related to this incident.

Samuel Delucenna Ingham

The situation almost came to gun play when Samuel Delucenna Ingham, a Quaker, paper manufacturer and Secretary of the Treasury (1829-1831) called Peggy “impudent and insolent.”  After his resignations, Ingham and Eaton exchanged tempestuous notes and Eaton challenged Ingham to a duel. Ingham declined. When President Jackson heard about it he advised Eaton “If he won’t fight, you must kill him.”  Stalked trhough the streets of Washington  by Eaton and his three companions Ingham gathered an armed escort and fled Washington in the dead of night.  Ingham, Van Buren, Berrien, Branch, Calhoun and Jackson county Counties Michigan were all named for members of Jackson’s cabinet.  Neither Ingham nor Eaton ever saw the counties named in their honor.

Elected to a second term, Jackson was eager to end the Peggy O’Neil fever that had threatened to bring down his first administration. He sent John Eaton and his wife off to the Florida Territory as governor. Two years later Jackson appointed Eaton minister to Spain in 1836, and she was a court and social favorite in London and Paris.

Van Buren

Amazingly, Eaton eventually turned on Jackson. In 1840, when President Van Buren recalled Eaton from Spain for failing to fulfill his diplomatic duties, Eaton announced his support for Van Buren's presidential rival, William Henry Harrison. Jackson was infuriated by Eaton's political disloyalty, claiming, "He comes out against all the political principles he ever professed and against those on which he was supported and elected senator." The two men didn't reconcile until a year before Jackson's death in 1845.

John Eaton died in eleven years later, in 1856, leaving Peggy a small fortune. Peggy continued to live in DC and her two daughters married into society.   On June 7, 1859, Peggy, then 59, married an Italian music teacher and dancing master, Antonio Gabriele Buchignani, who was 19.   In 1866, after seven years of marriage, Buchignani ran off to Europe with the bulk Peggy’s money as well as her 17-year-old granddaughter Emily E. Randolph, whom he married after he divorced Peggy in 1869. She was unable to recover her financial standing.

An older Peggy

She died in poverty in Washington, D.C. on November 9, 1879 at Lochiel House, a home for destitute women.  She is buried in the Oak Hill Cemetery next to John Eaton. A newspaper commenting on her death and on the irony of the situation editorialized: "Doubtless among the dead populating the terraces [of the cemetery] are some of her assailants [from the cabinet days] and cordially as they may have hated her, they are now her neighbors."

 Peggy at the end of her life

Frederick Law Olmsted

"An artist, he paints with lakes and wooded slopes; with lawns and banks and forest covered hills; with mountain sides and ocean views." Architect Daniel Burnham

The father of American landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmsted (April 26, 1822 – August 28, 1903) is the man who helped to design the ground of Smithsonian National Zoological Park, United States Capitol grounds, American University Main Campus, Gallaudet University and St. Albans School.

This drawing, which is oriented with east at the top, shows the arrangement of drives, paths, trees, fountains, and terraces that Olmsted created at the Capitol beginning in 1874. The outline of the Capitol includes an east front extension that Olmsted expected; the actual east front extension, which was constructed in 1958-1962, took a different shape.
Olmsted was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on April 26, 1822, the son of a prosperous merchant who played an active role in his son’s life and fed his many interests. Olmstead graduated from the prestigious Phillips Academy in 1838 but a bout of sumac poisoning cost him parts of his eyesight and kept him from graduating from Yale College. Instead, he worked as  a seaman, merchant, and journalist (In 1865, he cofounded the magazine The Nation and was one of the six founding members of the Union League Club of New York.)  finally settled, in 1848, on farming on the south shore of Staten Island.
In 1850, he traveled to England to visit public gardens, where he was greatly impressed by Joseph Paxton's Birkenhead Park. He subsequently wrote and published Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England in 1852. This supported his getting additional work. 
In 1858, Olmsted and his partners were chosen to design New York's Central Park. He left the business during the US civil war to take a position as Executive Secretary of the U.S. Sanitary Commission here in DC (The precursor to the Red Cross)  After the war he held a series of  positions including manager of the Rancho Las Mariposas-Mariposa mining estate in the Sierra Nevada mountains in California.
In 1865, Olmsted formed Olmsted, Vaux and Company and completed a series of well-known projects including Prospect Park in New York, Chicago's Riverside parks; the park system for Buffalo, New York; Milwaukee, Wisconsin's grand necklace of parks; and the Niagara Reservation at Niagara Falls.
Here in DC, Olmsted and his firm, Olmsted Brothers, designed American University Main Campus, Gallaudet University, St. Albans School, the National Zoo as well as the Capitol grounds. 
Senility forced Olmsted to retire in 1895. He died in 1903 and is buried in Hartford. His son Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. helped to plan the National Mall, the Jefferson Memorial, the White House grounds and Rock Creek Park. The Olmstead firm was closed in 1980.

The Beatles in Washington, February 11, 1964

     In early December 1963, a local Disc jockey named Carroll James from WWDC, got a mailed in request from 15-year-old Marsha Albert of Silver Springs that he play records by the still unknown (in the US) Beatles. In turn, James purchased and played a copy of the newly released

 'I Want To Hold Your Hand,' and let Albert announce it on the air. The song got a quick and positive response from listeners who flooded the station with requests for more of the Beatles sound.  On December 26th 1963, 'I Want To Hold Your Hand' was released by Capitol Records in the States and  reached #1 on the American Cashbox charts on January 17th, and was #1 on the American Billboard charts by February where it stayed for eleven weeks.  Three months later, in the week of April; 4th 1964, the Beatles owned all five of the Top Five positions on the Billboard charts, something that was never done before or has ever been repeated since.

    The Beatles appeared on the very popular, The Ed Sullivan Show on February 9th.
The show had received 50,000 ticket applications for 728 seats in the theater (Where the David Letterman Show is now filmed) and attracted a record audience of 73 million viewers.
     Two days later, the group arrived by train from New York to DC on February 11th 1964 for what would be their first public concert in the United States. They held a press conference from the stage of Washington Coliseum before the doors were opened for their show that evening. The Beatles had spent the afternoon giving interviews for television and radio in D.C., and posing for photographers and this was their final press piece before preparing for the show that night. The next day, the Beatles would return to New York City by train for two performances at Carnegie Hall.

Q: "When did the group first get togther?"
GEORGE: "Well you see, Paul, John and George met at school about five years ago, and we met Ringo when we left school. And we've been the Beatles for three years."
(Paul begins singing, and the other Beatles join in)
BEATLES: (singing) "We've been together now forty yeeeears!"

Q: "Where did you get the name the Beatles?"
JOHN: "I thought of it."
RINGO: "That's John."

Q: "Why?"
JOHN: "Why not!"

Q: "Do the four of you ever fight among yourselves?"
JOHN: "Only in the morning, ha."
RINGO: "No, we're very good friends."

Q: "Did you always have your hair this way?"
JOHN: (laughing) "Only in the morning!"

Q: "Did Ringo get his name from 'The Ringo Kid'?"
RINGO: "No. From all this on me fingers. Can you see 'em?"

Q: "Do you know who 'The Ringo Kid' is?"
RINGO: "He was a cowboy, wasn't he?"

Q: "Thank you."
RINGO: "Thank you."

Q: "How long do you think Beatlemania will last?"
JOHN: "As long as you all keep comin'."

Q: "Do any of you have any formal musical training?"
JOHN: (comically) "You're joking!!"
PAUL: (giggles)
RINGO: "No, we just picked it up."
JOHN: (laughs)

Q: "What do you think of President Johnson?"
RINGO AND JOHN: "Never met him."
JOHN: (comically, to Ringo) "Oh, we're thinking alike!"
PAUL: "We haven't met him."
RINGO: "We don't know. We've never met the man... (pause) Does he buy our records?"

Q: "What do you think of America, Amercican girls, and American audiences?"
RINGO: "Marvelous."

Q: "Can you compare them with Europeans?"
RINGO: "They're all the same, you know."

Q: "Have you visited the United States with any sense of revenge?"
JOHN: "He's been reading that paper, hasn't he!"
RINGO: "No! No, we just... (pause) come for the money."
RINGO: "It's a lie. No. We're..."
PAUL: (comically) "Excuse me?"
(Beatles laugh)

Q: "Are English disc jockeys as important as American disc jockeys?"
JOHN: "They're all as important as each other, if they've got any listeners."

Q: "What was the big break that led to your success?"
JOHN: "Making a record."
PAUL: "Making our first hit record. The BIG success was doing the Royal Variety show in front of the Queen Mother, and then right after that nearly at the same time, doing the London Palladium."

Q: "This phenomenal popularity you have acheived, do you feel you owe it all to press agents?"
JOHN: "We didn't get the press agents until we made it. We couldn't afford 'em before that."

Q: "What do you think about the criticism that you are a bad influence?"
PAUL: "I dunno, you know. I don't FEEL like a bad influence. (to John) Do you?"
JOHN: "Nah, I think you're a GOOD influence, Paul."
PAUL: "Thank you, John."

Q: "Is there any chance of the Beatles becoming knighted?"
(Beatles laugh)
PAUL: "No. (pause) No, YOU may be, though."
JOHN: "Can you imagine, Sir Ringo."

Q: "Who writes most of the songs?"
PAUL: "John and I write most of the records that we recorded. And Brian Sommerville (Beatles' Press Agent) does all the lyrics."
PAUL: "He's a BEAUTIFUL lyricist. Listen to him, now. Go on, Brian."
(no sound from Brian Sommerville)
PAUL: "He's fantastic. No, it just comes and goes, you know."

Q: "Who are the Beatles' favorite performers?"
JOHN: "The Miracles."
GEORGE: "Marvin Gaye."
JOHN AND PAUL: "Tommy Roe."

Q: "How long will you be in America?"
JOHN: "Till we go."
PAUL: "It's just a week. About a week."

Q: "What do you like or dislike about America?"
JOHN: "We like it all."
RINGO: "Yeah. We haven't any dislikes yet."
GEORGE: "Dislike the snow."
PAUL: "I don't. I love the snow."
GEORGE: "I do."

Q: "Have you ever really been afraid of the large crowds?"
PAUL: "We enjoy it, you know. There's enough police, anyway."

Q: "What has been your most exciting moment in the last year?"
PAUL: "There's been a lot of them. You know, meeting the Queen Mother at the Royal Command Performance, being number one in America, coming to America, traveling..."
RINGO: " America?"
PAUL: "We've enjoyed America. Been a lot of them, though."

Q: "Are the Beatles still number one in Europe?"
JOHN: "Well, Europe's got a lot of lists."
GEORGE: "A lot of countries."
PAUL: "A lot of hit parades."

Q: "In England."
PAUL: "Not in England."
JOHN: "No, the record's gone down to 7 or something."
PAUL: "But it's been out about 12 weeks... longer than 12 weeks in England."
JOHN: "It's been out about 3 months."
GEORGE: "'She Loves You' is still in the Top 20 and it's been out 25 weeks."

Carroll James managed to get the Beatles into a remote radio broadcast trailer for the following private interview

Q: "Welcome everyone. John Lennon."
JOHN: "Thank you, Carroll."

Q: "And Ringo Starr. Did your drums get off the train safely?"
RINGO: "I hope so. We got a man looking after them."

Q: "Good, good. And over here is Paul McCartney."
PAUL: "How do you do."

Q: "Good to see you, Paul. And over here is George Harrison, who I met the other night in New York."
GEORGE: "Yeah. How do you do."

Q: "I had a 30 second interview with him before a man with the network said, 'Here, put that thing away!'"
GEORGE: "Oh yeah."

Q: "Remember? And Dizzy Gillespie got my Beatle wig, and I still don't have one for tonight. Let me sit down here next to you, John. I have these phenomenal questions. We'll never get to them all. But these are just some of the questions that some of my listeners wanted to know about your careers and your selves."
JOHN: "Mm-hmm."

Q: "What was the first million seller in England that you had, and when was it?"
JOHN: "It was 'She Loves You,' I think. (to the others) Was it?"
PAUL: "Yes."

Q: "And the second was..."
JOHN: "I Want To Hold Your Nose."

Q: (laughs)
JOHN: "Hand."

Q: "And the other side has now become popular here."
JOHN: "Yeah, it's amazing, that. Yeah."

Q: "No it's not, it's a great arrangement."
JOHN: (jokingly) "Okay-yeah-it-is-thanks."

Q: (laughs) "The girls want to know what is your favorite food, and they want to know whether you like fish and chips."
JOHN: "Yeah, I like fish and chips quite a lot."

Q: "What is your favorite food?"
JOHN: "STEAK and chips, I think."

Q: "Paul, they of course want to know about the closest shave you've ever had in a crowd. The toughest spot you were ever in."
PAUL: "Uhh, I dunno."
GEORGE: "Ireland."
PAUL: "Yeah. We were playing in Ireland, and there's a place called (adopts heavy Irish accent) Belfast... no it was in Belfast. (loses accent) Lovely place, it is. We came out of the theatre in the front entrance, and they had sort of things to keep all the crowds back. Crush barriers. They had police on (laughs) mounted police."
PAUL: "Police on mounted dogs... whatever you call 'em."
PAUL: "And just as we were sort of driving away, and there were all motorcycles and things, the crush barriers gave in. And the crowds all sort of..." (imitates comic sounds of motors, felines, and objects crushing to the ground)

Q: "Do you attribute this to the fact that there are so many redheads in Ireland?"
PAUL: "Well I dunno. I didn't see any, actually. There may have been some underneath that crowd."

Q: (laughs) "How many rings do you own, Ringo? How many have your fans sent you?"
RINGO: "They've sent quite a lot. If I counted them all, I got about two-thousand- seven-hundred-and-sixty-one... and a bit."
PAUL: (laughs)

Q: "I see. The girls want to know, to where they should send the rings to you. What would the address be?"
13 Monmouth Street, London
. Make sure they're gold!! I only wear gold!!"

Q: "You could possibly make more from your rings than from your records in that case."
RINGO: "Yeah, they send a lot of silver ones."

Q: "Do you play cricket at all, George?"

Q: "What is your favorite sport? Singing and fighting for your life, but other than that..."
GEORGE: "I don't like many sports. I don't mind watching motor racing. That's about it. I wouldn't mind to have a go."
PAUL: "We all enjoy sleeping, you know. That's one of our favorite sports."

Q: "Well, it's been a long time since that's happened, isn't it?"
PAUL: "No, no. It happens. We try to get to the... you know, every night, actually. We try hard."

Q: "What are some of the American artists that you feel maybe had an influence on your career?"
PAUL: "Definitely Sophie Tucker. Very big influence. VERY big."

Q: (laughs) "Well you know, Tessie O'Shay who appeared on the Sullivan show with you, of course she is British..."
PAUL: "Tessie O'Shay is our favorite American group."
JOHN: (jokingly) "Well, we can't use THAT gag tonight, anyway."

Q: "What about drummers, Ringo?"
RINGO: "I don't know. There's so many."
JOHN: "What about Big Deaf Arthur?"
RINGO: "Oh yeah, Big Deaf Arthur. He's good."
JOHN: (to Carroll) "You know Big Deaf Arthur?"

Q: "No I don't."
JOHN: "He's with Small Blond Johnnie. Yeah."

Q: (laughs) "Really? Is that a..."
JOHN: "Oh yeah. It's really swinging."

Q: "Oh. They want to know if you still like Jellybabies."
RINGO: "No."
Q: "Not at all?"
RINGO: "We used to like them, and then we got about 18 ton sent to us. So, you know, our teeth are dropping out with them."

Q: (laughs)
RINGO: "We give 'em up."

Q: "This is National Dental Health Week here in America so I guess we forget the Jellybabies for the time being."
RINGO: "Yeah."

Q: "They hurt when they hit, don't they George?"
GEORGE: "They do, yeah. They make you stick to the floor, as well."

Q: "What is your dream in life? This is ridiculous because you have achieved more than a dream already. But John, what would be your dream from now on?"
JOHN: "Umm... (comic voice) I don't really know, Carroll. I couldn't honestly say."
PAUL: (giggles)

Q: "Do you drink a lot of tea, incidentally?"
JOHN: "Yeah, but I don't like these teabags so much, 'cuz they sort of stick in the teeth."

Q: "You don't use them at all in England, do you?"
JOHN: "Uhh, some people use them. But they're usually foreigners, you know."

Q: "Americans."
JOHN: "Well, people like that."

Q: "We'll leave England out of this, and America out of this but..."
JOHN: (jokingly) "What's left?"

Q: (laughs) "What is your favorite foreign country of all the countries you have appeared in?"
PAUL AND RINGO: "England."
PAUL: "I dunno. I'd rather have England than any of the foreign countries, I think."
JOHN: "Ireland. We like playing in Ireland. That was quite fun."
RINGO: "I like playing in America."
JOHN: "No, but besides America and England, you see. Sweden was quite nice."
PAUL, GEORGE AND RINGO: (agreeing) "Sweden."
JOHN: "And France."

Q: "Anybody know any foreign languages?"
JOHN: "Oh, we all speak fluent Shoe."
RINGO: "Well, Paul speaks ANY language. He just gets 'em off like wildfire."
PAUL: (gibberish)
Q: "Johnnie Johnson told me I wouldn't be able to understand the Liverpool accent. Was that a Liverpool accent?"
PAUL: (jokingly) "No, that was a London accent. A bit different down there."

Q: "What do you feel about some of the songs that have been written about you? Donna Lynn has a recording called, uhh... You may not even have heard all of these."
PAUL: "Yes."
GEORGE: "We have."
PAUL: "I've heard 'em. (sings) 'My boyfriend's got a Beatle haircut.'"

Q: "How do you feel about this? You've got a Beatle haircut yourself."
PAUL: "Actually, I haven't heard the record. I've heard about it, though. But it's good publicity, isn't it."
RINGO: "Is it selling?"

Q: "I believe so. Bill Turner tells me it's selling."
RINGO: "Well, I say the best of luck to her."
JOHN: "Yeah, best of luck."
PAUL: "Best of luck, Donna!"

Q: "You, George, are the only Beatle who had been in America before this trip. Is that correct?"
GEORGE: "Yeah. That's correct."

Q: "Went to visit your sister a few months ago."
GEORGE: "Yeah. September."

Q: "At that time, did anybody out there know of the Beatles?"
GEORGE: "Nobody had here, either. In New York, I went into a record shop to ask if they'd ever heard of us and they hadn't."
PAUL: (giggles)
GEORGE: "No, that was October."

Q: "That was October. And then we started hearing things in this country, I guess, first around November. And in December WWDC flew your record 'I Want To Hold Your...'"
GEORGE: "You did?"

Q: "Yes."
GEORGE: "Thanks, that was great."
JOHN: "Thank you very much."

Q: "Well, you're very welcome. I'd like you to meet the young lady, right after we're finished talking here, Marsha Albert is... Come on in here very quickly, Marsha."
RINGO: "Alright, Marsha."
PAUL: "Hello, Marsha."
JOHN: "Good ol' Marsha!"
GEORGE: "Marsha Mellow."
RINGO "Thank you, Marsha."
(each of the Beatles is introduced to Marsha Albert)

Q: (to John) "They call you the chief Beatle..."
JOHN: (jokingly) "Look, I don't call YOU names."

Q: (laughs)
JOHN: "Why do you have to call me names?"

Q: Who is responsible for the haircut?"
JOHN: "Well, I think it's... (pause) bigger than both of us, Carroll. That's all I can say."

Q: (laughs)
RINGO: "Nobody, really."

Q: "When you went to high school... grammar school... what did you have in mind as a career?"
PAUL: "I dunno. At that time I thought of being a teacher, actually. But luckily I got into this business, because I would have been a VERY bad teacher."

Q: "George?"
GEORGE: "I was going to be a baggy sweeger."

Q: "I beg your pardon?"
GEORGE: "A baggy sweeger."

Q: "And what is that?"
GEORGE: "Well, you see, in every city there are twenty-five baggy sweegers."
PAUL: (cracks up)
GEORGE: "And their job is to go out to the airport each morning..."
PAUL: (laughing) "Baggy sweeger!"
GEORGE: "...and baggy sweeging all along the line, man."

After the formal press conference, the Beatles conducted another televised interview on stage.  

Q: "Here I am surrounded by Beatles and I don't feel a thing. Fellas, how does it feel to be in the United States?"
RINGO: "It's great! Wonderful!"

PAUL AND GEORGE: "Very nice!"

Q: "What have you seen that you like best about our country?"
JOHN: "You!!"


Q: "Thank you very much. I'll take that under advisement. Now, do you have any plans or any arrangements to meet the Johnson girls?"
JOHN: "No. We heard they didn't like concerts."

GEORGE: "I didn't know they were on the show!"


Q: "They may come.... Are they coming to your show tonight?"
RINGO: "We don't know."

GEORGE: "I don't know."

PAUL: "We're not sure. But if they do, you know, we'd love it."

RINGO: "We'd like to meet them."

Q: "You and the snow came to Washington at the same time today. Which do you think will have the greater impact?"
JOHN: "The snow will probably last longer."

RINGO: "Yeah. We're going tomorrow."

Q: "Have you ever heard of Walter Cronkite?"
PAUL: "Nope."

GEORGE: "Yeah. News."

JOHN: "Good old Walter! NBC News, isn't he? Yeah, we know him. See? You don't catch me!"

Q: (correcting) "CBS News."
RINGO: "CBS News."


PAUL: (jokingly) "CUT!"

GEORGE: "I know, but I didn't want to say it. 'Cuz I thought it was CBS."

JOHN: "Yeah?"

GEORGE: (to John) "We're doing ABC..."

JOHN: "Yeah?"

GEORGE: "The other fella is on CBS, and the other one is NBC."

Q: "This is NBC, believe it or not."
JOHN: "And you're Walter!!"

Q: "No, I'm Ed."
JOHN: (jokingly) "What's going on around here!!"

Q: "I don't know! So, we're all together here."
GEORGE: "This is NBC."

(A different reporter begins asking questions)

Q: "What do you think of your reception in America, so far?"
JOHN: "It's been great."

Q: "What struck you the most, so far?"
PAUL: "YOU!! (laughing) We won't do that one again."

RINGO: "When we first came in, you know--- The airport. We never expected nothing like that. It was great."

Q: "You mean the crowds?"

JOHN: "It knocked us out!"

Q: "In spite of the snow, you still got a good crowd?"
JOHN: "Great crowd, yeah. I don't know-- Half of them thought we were coming by air, and we came by train."

Q: "Tell me this. Why do you think you're so popular all of a sudden?"
JOHN: "I don't know. It must be the weather."

PAUL: (giggles) "We've no idea at all why. Really."

Q: "Do you think it's your singing?"
JOHN: (Operatic singing voice) "Eeeeeee Dhhooooo!"

PAUL: "I doubt it. It could be alot of things, and we don't know which it could be."

Q: "Where did you get the idea for the haircuts?"
PAUL: "We didn't. It just the way we..."

RINGO: "Where did you get the idea for yours??"

PAUL: (laughs) "No, it's just something that we liked. We enjoyed wearing our hair this way, so it's developed this way."

Q: "You save on haircutting, at least?"
PAUL: "Yeah, uhhh-- We're saving."

JOHN: "I think it costs more to keep it short than to keep it long, don't you?"

Q: "I don't know. I imagine."
PAUL: "Yeah. We're saving our money."

Q: "Well, where do you go from here?"
RINGO: "Back to, ummm..."

PAUL AND JOHN: "New York."

RINGO: "...New York tommorrow."

GEORGE: "Then Miami at the weekend, just for the next Sullivan show, and then we go home."

RINGO: "On Monday."

Q: "Are you still number one in Europe?"
JOHN: "Well, Europe is alot of countries."

Q: "Where are you number one then?"
GEORGE: "We're now number one in America and England."

JOHN: "Hong Kong and Sweden..."

GEORGE: "Australia, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, France..."

Q: "And you haven't any idea why?"
RINGO: "We lay down and do it."

JOHN: "We're coming out in Hong Kong and suddenly you're number one there years after so many records. Even here, you know, we've got records we've forgotten."

PAUL: "Funny records, yeah."

Q: "You call your records 'funny records'?"
GEORGE: "Yeah!"

JOHN: "They're funny once we've forgotten them."

GEORGE: "You know-- It's unusual because they've been out in England for over a year. Like "Please, Please Me" is a hit over here now, but it's over a year old, you see. And it's funny."

Q: "But, what I'm saying is-- Do you think of your records as funny records?"


GEORGE: "We think it's funny-- peculiar-- that they should be hits after such a long time."

Q: "Do you feel they're musical?"
JOHN: "Obviously they're musical because it's music, isn't it! Instruments play music. It's a record."

PAUL: "It's musical, you know."

JOHN: "It is musical."

PAUL: "It's music, isn't it! (sings) 'Bumm Bumm Bumm.'"

JOHN: "That's music, too."

PAUL: "He's good-- He knows music!"

Q: "Alright, but what do you call it?"
PAUL: "We try not to define our music because we get so many wrong classifications off it. It's no use. We just call it-- MUSIC??? (laughs) ...even if you don't."

Q: "With a question mark."
PAUL: "Pardon?"

Q: "With a question mark?"

PAUL: "No."

JOHN: "We leave that to the critics."

PAUL: "With an exclamation mark!"

Q: "OK. Have a good time in America."

PAUL: "Thank you very much."

JOHN AND GEORGE: "Thank you."

JOHN: "Keep buying 'em."

RINGO: "Look after yourself."

     After the concert, The Beatles returned to the Shoreham Hotel to unwind, have some cold cuts and change clothes before heading to the British Embassy. as guests of Ambassador and Lady David Ormsby-Gore for a charity ball for the National Association for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

    Before the incident happened, the John Lennon gave a brief interview in the Shoreham

Q: "Which one are you?"
JOHN: "Eric."

Q: (gesturing to the TV camera) "Eric, here is the American public..."
JOHN: "I'm John."

Q: "You're John?"
JOHN: "Yeah, it was a joke."

Q: "Well John, here is the American public. Forty million American viewers..."
JOHN: "It just looks like one man to me. Oh. It's the camera man."

Q: "What is your impression of the American public? You've been here for a while, now."
JOHN: "They are the wildest."

Q: "Why?"
JOHN: "I don't know. Tonight was, you know, marvelous. Ridiculous. Almost eight-thousand people all shouting at once, and we were trying to shout louder than them with microphones, and we still couldn't beat 'em."

Q: "Was America something like what you thought it would be like?"
JOHN: "No, nothing like it. We thought it would be much quieter. We thought we'd, you know, have to grow on everybody, and everybody seems to sort of know us all, you know, as if we've been here for years. It's great."

Q: "What is your impression of the new American singing group, 'The Cockroaches'? Have you heard them yet?"

JOHN: "I haven't heard them. But it's already been done about eighty times in England. Sorry Cockroaches!" (grins and giggles)

    The group didn’t arrive at the Embassy until 12:45 a.m., and as they arrived, the British press secretary announced solemnly, "Attention: Beatles are now approaching the area."
    While giving out the raffle prizes -- autographed copies of "Meet The Beatles" -- Starr told the winners, "If you don't like it, you can exchange it for a Frank Sinatra."  In the midst of all this, a woman in a long dress produced a pair of nail scissors and snipped some hair off Starr's head, with the Ottawa Sun reporting that "she went off, squealing in a half-demented way, 'I've got his hair. ... I've got his hair.'"
    Ringo said alter  " We attended a miserable event in the British Embassy in Washington. In the early Sixties, there was still a huge disparity between people from the north of England and 'people from embassies'. They were all, "Oh, very nice," a bit like Brian Epstein, and we were, "All right, lads, not so bad." But we went, God knows why. Maybe because we'd suddenly become ambassadors and they wanted to see us, and I think Brian liked the idea it was sort of big time. We were standing around saying, 'Hi, that's very nice,' and having a drink, and one of them someone came up behind me and snipped a piece of my hair off. You know, it got me angry. Why was he carrying a pair of scissors? I just swung round with a "What the hell do you think you are doing?"
"Oh, it's OK, old chap... “
   George Martin and his wife accompanied the Beatles to the Embassy and recalled the incident in his autobiography All You Need Is Ears (1979) “.....full quota of chinless wonders behaved abominably. They would approach the boys with an off-hand "Oh, which one are you?", and one actually got a pair of scissors and snipped off a piece of Ringo's hair while he was talking to someone else. It almost created a diplomatic incident.”
   Michael Braun's account in his book Love Me Do (1964) wrote  “After appearing on several television stations, posing for photos, and signing autographs, John walks into the rotunda for a drink. As he orders it an Embassy official is 'wondering' whether he can 'prevail upon our guests to participate in our rather small but not insignificant raffle'.
At that moment a young Embassy official approaches him and says 'Come along now! Come and do your stuff!' John glares at him. 'I'm not going back through that crowd,' he says. 'I want to finish my drink.'
'Oh, yes, you are,' the official says imperiously. 'Come on, come on.' John turns his back on the official, but is now approached by a young lady in a ballroom gown. 'Come along, now,' she says. Livid, John turns to Ringo and says, 'I'm getting out of here.' With a deadpan smile Ringo puts an arm on John's shoulder and answers calmly, 'Oh, come on, let's get it over with.'
     In the ballroom (presumably) the Beatles draw the winning raffle tickets.
Michael Braun continues: As the Beatles leave the ballroom a British debutante walks up to Ringo, removes a pair of nail scissors from her purse, and snips off a lock of his hair.
    Just before they leave the Embassy, Lady Ormsby Gore tells them, 'Thank you so much for coming. I'm sorry about all that down there. It can't have been much fun for you.' Going out of the door, Ringo turns to the unsettled Ambassador and asks, 'And what do you do?'
    When reports of what had happened were printed in the British press the Embassy issued a denial. When the Beatles insisted it was true, an M.P. posted a question to the Prime Minister regarding 'the disgraceful behaviour at the Embassy'.
     Capitol Records Fred Martin witnessed the hair-cutting incident. He recalled that “the British ambassador had begged to have them (the Beatles) come over to the embassy for a party. And they really did not want to go, and Brian Epstein finally convinced them that [it was] something they really had to do. And so we went over there and we had a caravan of limousines.
    Within five minutes or so some woman came running up with a pair of scissors and tried to cut a lock of hair off of him and, y'know, another half an inch one way or the other and she could have put an eye out. And that was it, "We're going." We trooped out of there back to the hotel in Washington where we were staying, the Shoreham, and had our traveling family, and had a nice big party.”

    Ten days after the incident at the Embassy, the Beatles were interviewed by the BBC-TV in London.

 Q: "Now Ringo, I hear you were manhandled at the Embassy Ball. Is this right?"
RINGO: "Not really. Someone just cut a bit of my hair, you see."

Q: "Let's have a look. You seem to have got plenty left."
RINGO: (turns head) "Can you see the difference? It's longer, this side."

Q: "What happened exactly?"
RINGO: "I don't know. I was just talking, having an interview (exaggerated voice) Just like I am NOW!"
(John and Paul begin lifting locks of his hair, pretending to cut it.)
RINGO: "I was talking away and I looked 'round, and there was about 400 people just smiling. So, you know - what can you say!"
JOHN: "What can you say!"
RINGO: "Tomorrow never knows."